SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS SUPPORTING ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR RHEUMATIC DISEASES
The National Library of Medicine

MAJOR CLINICAL STUDIES IN THE USE OF MINOCYCLINE (MINOCIN):

Breedveld F, Dukmans BAC, Mattie H - Minocycline Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Open Dose Study; J of Rheum, 1990; 17:1, 43-46

Langevitz P, Bank I, Zemer D, Book M - Treatment of Resistant Rheumatoid Arthritis with Minocycline: An Open Study; J of Rheum 1992; 10:10, 1502-1504

Kloppenburg M, Breedveld F, Terwiel J, Mallee C, Dijkmans BAC - Minocycline in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis; Arthritis & Rheumatism 1994; 17:5, 629-636

Tilley BC, Alarcon AS, Heyse SP, Trentham DE, Neuner R., Kaplan DA, Clegg DO, Leisen JCC, Buckley L, Cooper SM, Duncan H, Pillemer SR, Tuttlemen M, Fowler SE - Minocycline in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A 48 Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial;Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995; 122:81-89

O'Dell J, Haire C, Palmer W, Drymalski W, Wees S, Churchill M, Eckhoff J, Weaver A, Doud D, Erikson N, Dietz F, Olson R, Maloney P, Klassen L, Moore G - Treatment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis with Minocycline or Placebo: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial; Arthritis and Rheumatism May 1997, 40:5, 842-848.

Scleroderma study published in "Lancet", Vol 352, Issue 9142, 28th November, 1998.
David Trentham, Chief of Rheumatology, Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, reported to the 6th Biennial Congress of the International Society for Rheumatic Therapies on a small recently concluded study using minocycline in scleroderma. Eleven patients were enrolled in the study with six completing it. All showed significant improvement with four achieving remission. Of the five patients who dropped out, two were due to renal crisis, one was due to unrelated carcinoma, one changed to IV therapy and one withdrew because of another medical problem. Click here to read the CNN coverage of this study.

O'Dell JR, Paulsen G, Haire CE, Blakely K, Palmer W, Wees S, Eckhoff PJ, Klassen LW, Churchill M, Doud D, Weaver A, Moore GF - Treatment of early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis with minocycline. Four-year followup of a double blind, placebo-controlled trial, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1999, 42:8,1691-1695

"Not all of the information that has developed from fifty years of research and practice with connective tissue disorders is of a kind that lends itself to statistical summary. In fact, I often feel that the source that has weighed most heavily over the long term, in helping me to understand what is involved in these diseases and in recognizing their patterns, is the kind of data that scientists characterize as anecdotal. In time, as it repeats itself over and over again, anecdotal data becomes progressively more substantive and meaningful. Perhaps more than any other aspects of learning, it has provided the deepest insights into the process by which connective tissue disease happens to people."
Thomas McPherson Brown M.D.

Thomas McP. Brown et al. - Antibiotic Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Observational Cohort Study of 98 Patients with 451 Patient-years of Follow-up. Click here to review.

ADDITIONAL CLINICAL STUDIES USING MINOCYCLINE (MINOCIN) AND OTHER ANTIBIOTICS:

Gompels LL, Smith A, Charles PJ, Rogers W, Soon-Shiong J, Mitchell A, Dore C, Taylor PW, Mackworth-Young CG. Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Charing Cross Hospital, London, England. J Rheumotology 2006 Feb;33(2):224-7. CONCLUSION: Combined antibiotic therapy with intravenous clindamycin and oral tetracycline may be useful in the management of active RA. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of therapy is justified.

Greenwald, RA, Golub, LM, Lavietes, B, Ramamurthy, NS, Gruber, B, Laskin, RS, McNamara, TF, Tetracyclines Inhibit Human Synovial Collagenase In Vivo and In Vitro, Journal of Rheumatology, 1987, 14:1, 28-32.

Fox, R, Sharp, D, Editorial: Antibiotics as Biological Response Modifiers, The Lancet, 1991, 337:8738, 400-401.

Lauhio, A, Leirisalo-Repo, M, Lähdevirta, J, Saikku, P, Repo, H, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Three-Month Treatment with Lymecycline in Reactive Arthritis, with Special Reference to Chlamydia Arthritis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1991, 34:1, 6-14.

Lauhio, A, Sorsa, T, Lindy, O, Suomalainen, K, Saari, H, Golub, LM, Konttinen, YT, The Anticollagenolytic Potential of Lymecycline in the Long-Term Treatment of Reactive Arthritis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1992, 35:2, 195-198.

Pruzanski, W, Vadas, P, Editorial: Should Tetracyclines be Used in Arthritis?, Journal of Rheumatology, 1992, 19:10, 1495-1497.

Kloppenburg, M, Breedveld, FC, Miltenburg, AMM, Dijkmans, BAC, Antibiotics as Disease Modifiers in Arthritis, Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 1993, 11: Suppl. 8, S113-S115.

Kloppenburg, M, Breedveld, FC, Terwiel, JPh, Mallee, C, Dijkmans, BAC, Minocycline in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1994, 37:5, 629-636.

Kloppenburg, M, Mattie, H, Douwes, N, Dijkmans, BAC, Breedveld, FC, Minocycline in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relationship of Serum Concentrations to Efficacy, Journal of Rheumatology, 1995, 22:4, 611-616.

Paulus, HE, Editorial: Minocycline Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 122:2, 147-148.

Bluhm, GB, Sharp, JT, Tilley, BC, Alarcon, GS, Cooper, SM, Pillemer, SR, Clegg, DO, Heyse, SP, Trentham, DE, Neuner, R, Kaplan, DA, Leisen, JC, Buckley, L, Duncan, H, Tuttleman, M, Shuhui, L, Fowler, SE, Radiographic Results from the Minocycline in Rheumatoid Arthritis (MIRA) Trial, Journal of Rheumatology, 1997, 24:7, 1295-1302.

Breedveld, FC, Editorial: Minocycline in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1997, 40:5, 794-796.

Kawanaka et al - An evaluation of efficacy of minocycline as an anti-rheumatic drug in patients with active and refractory rheumatoid arthritis; Ryumachi 1998 Dec;38(6):801-9

Sieper, J, Braun, J, Editorial: Treatment of Reactive Arthritis with Antibiotics, British Journal of Rheumatology, July 1998.

Langevitz P, Livneh A, Bank I, Pras M Rheumatic Disease Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer, Israel Benefits and risks of minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis Drug Saf 2000 May;22(5):405-14

Ikejima H, Tananato H, Ishida K, Kaku M, Shimada J - Evaluation of in-vitro activity of new quinolones, macrolides, and minocycline against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Infect Chemother 2000 Sep;6(3):148-50

O'Dell JR, Blakely KW, Mallek JA, Eckhoff PJ, Leff RD, Wees SJ, Sems KM, Fernandez AM, Palmer WR, Klassen LW, Paulsen GA, Haire CE, Moore GF - Treatment of early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis: a two-year, double-blind comparison of minocycline and hydroxychloroquine. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2001 Oct;44(10):2235-41

Stone M, Fortin PR, Pacheco-Tina C, Inman RD - Should tetracycline treatment be used more extensively for rheumatoid arthritis? J Rheumatol. 2003 Oct:30(10):2112-22

Graham Chiu, M.D., Wellington, New Zealand - Minocycline Therapy in Psoriatic Arthritis. Click here to review.

MYCOPLASMAS:

Baseman, JB, Tully, JG, Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, Reemerging, and Burdened by Their Notoriety, CDC's Emerging Infectious Diseases, 1997, 3:1, 21-32.

Clark, HW, Coker-Vann, MR, Bailey, JS, Brown, TMP, Detection of Mycoplasmal Antigens in Immune Complexes from Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluids, Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 1988, 60, 394-398.

Endresen GK, Dept. of Rheumatology, The National Hospital, University of Oslo, Forskningsvn. 2-Block B, 0027, Oslo NorwayB - Mycoplasma blood infection in chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia syndrome;B Rheumatology Int.B 2003 Jul 16.

Franz, A, Webster, ADB, Furr, PM, Taylor-Robinson, D, Mycoplasmal Arthritis in Patients with Primary Immunoglobulin Deficiency: Clinical Features and Outcome in 18 Patients, British Journal of Rheumatology, 1997, 36:6, 661-668.

J Rheumatol. 2003 Oct:30(10):2112-22 Haier J, Nasralla M, Franco AR, Nicholson GL - Detection of mycoplasmal infections in blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999 June;38(6):504-9.

Hakkarainen K, Turunen, H, Miettinen, A, Karppelin, M, Kaitila, K, Jansson, E, Mycoplasmas and Arthritis, Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 1992, 51, 1170-1172.

Hoffman, RH, Wise, KS, Letters: Reply to Mycoplasmas in the Joints of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1998, 41:4, 756-757.

Horowitz S, Evinson B, Borer H, Horowitz J - Mycoplasma fermentans in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthritides. J Rheumatology 2000 Dec;27(12):2747-53

Johnson S; Sidebottom D; Bruckner F; Collins D; St. George's Hospital and Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW170RE, United Kingdom. Identification of Mycoplasma fermentans in synovial fluid samples from arthritis patients with inflammatory disease. J Clin Microbiol 2000 Jan;38(1):90-3 (ISSN: 0095-1137).

Nicholson GL, Nasralla MY, Franco AR, DeMieirleir K, Nicholson N, Ngwenya R, and Haier J - Role of Mycoplasmal Infections in Fatigue Illnesses: Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Syndromes, Gulf War Illness and Rheumatoid Arthritis - J Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 2000; 6(3/4):23-39

Schaeverbeke, T, Bébéar, C, Lequen, L, Dehais, J, Bébéar, C, Letters: Mycoplasmas in the Joints of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders: Comment on the Article by Hoffman et al., Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1998, 41:4, 754-756.

Schaeverbeke, T, Gilroy, CB, Bébéar, C, Dehais, J, Taylor-Robinson, D, Mycoplasma fermentans, But Not M penetrans, Detected by PCR Assays in Synovium from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Disorders, Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1996, 49, 824-828.

Vojdani A, Choppa PC, Tagle C, Andrin R, Samimi B, Lapp CW - Detection of mycoplasma genus and Mycoplasma fermentans by PCR in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1998 Dec:22(4):355-65.

BACTERIA CAUSING ARTHRITIS:

Aoki, S, Yoshikawa, K, Yokoyama, T, Nonogaki, T, Iwasaki, S, Mitsui, T, Niwa, S, Role of Enteric Bacteria in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Evidence for Antibodies to Enterobacterial Common Antigens in Rheumatoid Sera and Synovial Fluids, Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 1996, 55:6, 363-369.

Blankenberg-Sprenkels, SHD, Fielder, M, Feltkamp, TEW, Tiwana, H, Wilson, C, Ebringer, A, Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Dutch Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Acute Anterior Uveitis and to Proteus mirabilis in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 25:4, 743-747.

Ebringer, A, Ankylosing Spondylitis is Caused by Klebsiella: Evidence from Immunogenetic, Microbiologic, and Serologic Studies, Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 1992, 18:1, 105-121.

Gaston, JSH, Deane, KHO, Jecock, RM, Pearce, JH, Identification of 2 Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by Synovial Fluid T Cells from Patients with Chlamydia Induced Reactive Arthritis, Journal of Rheumatology, 1996, 23:1, 130-136.

Granfors, K, Do Bacterial Antigens Cause Reactive Arthritis?, Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 1992, 18:1, 37-48.

Granfors, K, Merilahti-Palo, R, Luukkainen, R, Möttönen, T, Lahesmaa, R, Probst, P, Märker-Hermann, E, Toivanen, P, Persistence of Yersinia Antigens in Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Yersinia Enterocolitica 0:3 Infection with or without Reactive Arthritis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1998, 41:5, 855-862.

Inman, RD, The Role of Infection in Chronic Arthritis, Journal of Rheumatology, 1992, 19, Supplement 33, 98-104.

Layton, MA, Dziedzic, K, Dawes, PT, Letters to the Editor: Sacroiliitis in an HLA B27-negative Patient Following Giardiasis, British Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 37:5, 581-583.

Mäki-Ikola, O, Lehtinen, K, Granfors, K, Similarly Increased Serum IgA1 and IgA2 Subclass Antibody Levels against Klebsiella pneumoniæ Bacteria in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients With/Without Extra-Articular Features, British Journal of Rheumatology, 1996, 35:2, 125-128.

Mäki-Ikola, O, Lehtinen, K, Granfors, K, Vainionpää, R, Toivanen, P, Bacterial Antibodies in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Clinical Experimental Immunology, 1991, 84, 472-475.

Mills, JA, Do Bacteria Cause Chronic Polyarthritis?, New England Journal of Medicine, 1989, 320:4, 245-246.

Morrison, RP, Editorial: Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: In Vitro Phenomenon or in Vivo Trigger of Reactive Arthritis?, Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 25:4, 610-612.

Mousavi-Jazi, M, Boström, L, Lövmark, C, Linde, A, Brytting, M, Sundqvist, V-A, Infrequent Detection of Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Synovial Membrane of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 25:4, 623-628.

Rook, GAW, Lydyard, PM, Stanford, JL, A Reappraisal of the Evidence that Rheumatoid Arthritis and Several Other Idiopathic Diseases Are Slow Bacterial Infections, Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 1993, 52, S30-S38.

Schwartz, BD, Infectious Agents, Immunity, and Rheumatic Diseases, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1990, 33:4, 457-465.

Tani, Y, Tiwana, H, Hukuda, S, Nishioka, J, Fielder, M, Wilson, C, Bansal, S, Ebringer, A, Antibodies to Klebsiella, Proteus, and HLA-B27 Peptides in Japanese Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, Journal of Rheumatology, 1997, 24:1, 109-114.

Tiwana, H, Walmsley, RS, Wilson, C, Yiannakou, JY, Ciclitira, PJ, Wakefield, AJ, Ebringer, A, Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response to Klebsiella Species in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Ankylosing Spondylitis, British Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 37:5, 525-531.

Wilkinson, NZ, Kingsley, GH, Sieper, J, Braun, J, Ward, ME, Lack of Correlation Between the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in Synovial Fluid from Patients with a Range of Rheumatic Diseases and the Presence of an Antichlamydial Immune Response, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1998, 41:5, 845-854.

Wollenhaupt, J, Kolbus, F, Weißbrodt, H, Schneider, C, Krech, T, Zeidler, H, Manifestations of Chlamydia Induced Arthritis in Patients with Silent Versus Symptomatic Urogenital Chlamydial Infection, Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 1995, 13:4, 453-458.

ANTIBIOTICS IN MEDICAL JOURNALS (1995-1998)

Alarcon, GS, Tilley, B, Cooper, S, Clegg, DO, Trentham, DE, Pillemer, SR, Neuner, R, Fowler, S, Letter: Another look at minocycline, Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases, 1996, 45(8), 6-7.

Bluhm, GB, Sharp, JT, Tilley, BC, Alarcon, GS, Cooper, SM, Pillemer, SR, Clegg, DO, Heyse, SP, Trentham, DE, Neuner, R, Kaplan, DA, Leisen, JC, Buckley, L, Duncan, H, Tuttleman, M, Li, S, Fowler, SE, Radiographic Results from the Minocycline in Rheumatoid Arthritis (MIRA) Trial, Journal of Rheumatology, 1997, 24(7), 1295-1302.

Brandt, KD, Modification by oral doxycycline administration of articular cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis, Journal of Rheumatology, 1995, Supplement 43, 149-151.

Breedveld, FC, Editorial: Minocycline in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1997, 40(5), 794-796.

Breedveld, FC, Letters: Reply to Minocycline- Induced Autoimmune Disease, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1998, 41(3), 563-564.

Canvin, JM, Madhok, R, Letter: Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 123(5), 392.

Caruso, I, Twenty years of experience with intra-articular rifamycin for chronic arthritides, Journal of International Medical Research, 1997, 25(6), 307-317.

Ebell, MH, Minocycline for rheumatoid arthritis, Journal of Family Practice, 1995, 40(5), 497-498.

Evdoridou, J, Roilides, E, Bibashi, E, Kremenopoulos, G, Multifocal osteoarthritis due to Candida albicans in a neonate: serum level monitoring of liposomal amphotericin B and literature review, Infection, 1997, 25(2), 112-116.

Galland, L, Letter: Minocycline and rheumatoid arthritis revisited, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 123(5), 392-393.

Griffiths, B, Gough, A, Emery, P, Letters: Minocycline- Induced Autoimmune Disease: Comment on the Editorial by Breedveld, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1998, 41(3), 563.

Houck, HE, Kauffman, CL, Casey, DL, Minocycline treatment for leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis, Archives of Dermatology, 1997, 133(1), 15-16.

Iwata, M, Ida, M, Oda, S, Takeuchi, E, Nakamura, Y, Horiguchi, T, Sato, A, Bronchiolitis obliterans preceding rheumatoid arthritis: effect of clarithromycin [Japanese], Nippon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi ^Ö Japanese Journal of Thoracic Diseases, 1996, 34(11), 1271-1276.

Kim, NM, Freeman, CD, Minocycline for rheumatoid arthritis, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 1995, 29(2), 186-187.

Kloppenburg, M, Dijkmans, BA, Breedveld, FC, Antimicrobial therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, Baillieres Clinical Rheumatology, 1995, 9(4), 759-769.

Kloppenburg, M, Dijkmans, BA, Verweij, CL, Breedveld, FC, Inflammatory and immunological parameters of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with minocycline, Immunopharmacology, 1996, 31(2-3), 163-169.

Kloppenburg, M, Mattie, H, Douwes, N, Dijkmans, BA, Breedveld, FC, Minocycline in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: relationship of serum concentrations to efficacy, Journal of Rheumatology, 1995, 22(4), 611-616.

Lai, NS, Lan, JL, Treatment of DMARDs-resistant rheumatoid arthritis with minocycline: a local experience among the Chinese, Rheumatology International, 1998, 17(6), 245-247.

Langevitz, P, Livneh, A, Bank, I, Pras, M, Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis, Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 1996, 32(5), 327-330.

Lauhio, A, Salo, T, Tjaderhane, L, Lahdevirta, J, Golub, LM, Sorsa, T, Letter: Tetracyclines in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, The Lancet, 1995, 346(8975), 645-646.

Leirisalo-Repo, M, Editorial: Antibiotic treatment in rheumatoid arthritis? [Finnish, Original Title: Antibioottikuuri nivelreuman haatoon?], Duodecim, 1995, 111(13), 1181-1182.

McKendry, RJ, Is rheumatoid arthritis caused by an infection?, The Lancet, 1995, 345(8961), 1319-1320.

Meehan, R, Letter: Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 123(5), 391-392.

Nordstrom, D, Lindy, O, Lauhio, A, Sorsa, T, Santavirta, S, Konttinen, YT, Anti-collagenolytic mechanism of action of doxycycline treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology International, 1998, 17(5), 175-180.

O'Dell, JR, Haire, CE, Palmer, W, Drymalski, W, Wees, S, Blakely, K, Churchill, M, Eckhoff, PJ, Weaver, A, Doud, D, Erikson, N, Dietz, F, Olson, R, Maloley, P, Klassen, LW, Moore, GF, Treatment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis with Minocycline or Placebo: Results of a Randomized, Double- Blind, Placebo- Controlled Trial, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1997, 40(5), 842-848.

Panush, RS, Thoburn, R, Should minocycline be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis?, Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases, 1996, 45(2), 2-5.

Patmas, MA, Letter: Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 123(5), 391-392.

Paulus, HE, Editorial: Minocycline treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 122(2), 147-148.

Pillemer, SR, Fowler, SE, Tilley, BC, Alarcon, GS, Heyse, SP, Trentham, DE, Neuner, R, Clegg, DO, Leisen, JC, Cooper, SM, Duncan, H, Tuttleman, M, Meaningful improvement criteria sets in a rheumatoid arthritis clinical trial: MIRA Trial Group, Minocycline in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1997, 40(3), 419-425.

Ryan, ME, Greenwald, RA, Golub, LM, Potential of tetracyclines to modify cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis, Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 1996, 8(3), 238-247.

Sieper, J, Braun, J, Editorial: Treatment of Reactive Arthritis with Antibiotics, British Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 37(7), 717-720.

Smith, GN Jr, Yu, LP Jr, Brandt, KD, Capello, WN, Oral administration of doxycycline reduces collagenase and gelatinase activities in extracts of human osteoarthritic cartilage, Journal of Rheumatology, 1998, 25(3), 532-535.

Tilley, BC, Alarcon, GS, Heyse, SP, Trentham, DE, Neuner, R, Kaplan, DA, Clegg, DO, Leisen, JC, Buckley, L, Cooper, SM, Duncan, H, Pillemer, SR, Tuttleman, M, Fowler, SE, Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis: A 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, MIRA Trial Group, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1995, 122(2), 81-89.

Toussirot, E, Despaux, J, Wendling, D, Do minocycline and other tetracyclines have a place in rheumatology?, Revue du Rhumatisme, English Edition, 1997, 64(7-9), 474-480.

Trentham, DE, Dynesius-Trentham, RA, Antibiotic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: Scientific and anecdotal appraisals, Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, 1995, 21(3), 817-834.

Stone M, Fortin PR, Pacheco-Tena C, Inman, RD -Should Tetracycline Treatment be Used More Extensively for Rheumatoid Arthritis? J Rheumatology 2003;30:2112-22

Wilson, C, Senior, BW, Tiwana, H, Caparros-Wanderley, W, Ebringer, A, Antibiotic sensitivity and proticine typing of Proteus mirabilis strains associated with rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology International, 1998, 17(5), 203-205.


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